The Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL), the highest level of professional American football in the United States, culminating a season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 15, 1967, following the regular season played in 1966, while Super Bowl XLV was played on February 6, 2011, to determine the champion of the 2010 regular season.
The game was created as part of a merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival league, the American Football League (AFL). It was agreed that the two leagues' champion teams would play in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to officially begin in 1970. After the merger, each league was redesignated as a "conference", and the game was then played between the conference champions.
The day on which the Super Bowl is played is now considered a de facto American national holiday, called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U.S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has frequently been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year. Super Bowl XLV played in 2011 became the most-watched American television program in history, drawing an average audience of 111 million viewers and taking over the spot held by the previous year's Super Bowl, which itself had taken over the #1 spot held for twenty-eight years by the final episode of M*A*S*H. The Super Bowl is also among the most watched sporting events in the world, mostly due to North American audiences, and is second to Association football's UEFA Champions League final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide.
Because of its high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year. Due to the high cost of investing in advertising on the Super Bowl, companies regularly develop their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result, watching and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies because of the exposure.
The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its competitive rival, the American Football League (AFL). After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966.
The name derives from a college football game which started in Pasadena, CA in 1902, was subsequently named the Tournament of Roses, and which moved to the Rose Bowl stadium in 1923. The Pasadena stadium was called "Rose" because it was built to host the Tournament of Roses football game, and "Bowl" because it resembles a bowl. Demonstrating a confusion between its venue and the contest itself, the Tournament of Roses soon became known as the Rose Bowl. Exploiting the popularity of the Rose Bowl stadium and the college championship game of the same name, the Orange Bowl and Sugar Bowl football games were created in 1935, followed by the Cotton Bowl in 1937 (at a bowl-shaped stadium called the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, Texas). "Bowl" thus became a standard term, and other "bowl games" were created in later years. The NFL championship started in 1967 when the bowl games were already well known to football fans.
The NFL and AFL agreed to merge before the 1966 season. The first championship game between the two leagues; champions was to take place after that season. Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt first used the term "Super Bowl" to refer to this game in the merger meetings. Hunt would later say the name was likely in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball toy. (A vintage example of the ball is on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio.) In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the 'Super Bowl,' which obviously can be improved upon." Although the leagues' owners decided on the name "AFL-NFL Championship Game," the media immediately picked up on Hunt's "Super Bowl" name, which would become official beginning with the third annual game.
After the NFL's Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the competitiveness of AFL teams compared with NFL counterparts, though that perception changed with the AFL's New York Jets' defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. One year later, the AFL Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23–7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the final world championship game played between the champions of the two leagues, as the league merger finally took place later that year. Beginning with the 1970 season, the former AFL teams and three NFL teams formed the American Football Conference and the remaining NFL teams formed the National Football Conference, with the AFC and NFC champions meeting in each year's Super Bowl.
The game is played annually on a Sunday as the final game of the NFL Playoffs. Originally, the game took place in early to mid-January, following a fourteen-game regular season and two rounds of playoffs. Over the years, the date of the Super Bowl has progressed from the second Sunday in January, to the third, then the fourth Sunday in January; the game is currently played on the first Sunday in February, given the current seventeen-week (sixteen games and one bye week) regular season and three rounds of playoffs. Also, February is television's "sweeps" month and it affords the television network carrying the game an immense opportunity to pad its viewership when negotiating for advertising revenue. The progression of the dates of the Super Bowl was caused by several factors: the expansion of the NFL's regular season in 1978 from fourteen games to sixteen; the expansion of the pre-Super Bowl playoff field from eight to twelve teams, necessitating the addition of a third round of playoffs (also in 1978) the addition of the regular season bye-week in the 1990s; and the decision to start the regular season the week following Labor Day.
The winning team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named after the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games and three of the five preceding NFL championships in 1961, 1962, and 1965. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, and was first awarded as such to the Baltimore Colts at Super Bowl V in Miami.
The Pittsburgh Steelers have won six Super Bowls, while two other teams, the Dallas Cowboys and the San Francisco 49ers, have each won five. Fourteen other NFL franchises have won at least one Super Bowl. Only four active NFL franchises, the Cleveland Browns, Detroit Lions, Jacksonville Jaguars and the Houston Texans, have not appeared in the Super Bowl: The Browns and Lions have both won NFL championships prior to the Super Bowl era, while the Jaguars (who joined the NFL in 1995) and Texans (2002) joined the league after the era began.
1966-1967: Packers early successEdit
The Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, defeating the AFL Kansas City Chiefs and the AFL Oakland Raiders following the 1966 and 1967 seasons, respectively. The Packers were led by quarterback Bart Starr, who was named the Most Valuable Player (MVP) for both games. These two championships, coupled with the Packers' NFL championships in 1961, 1962, and 1965 have led many people[who?] to consider the Packers to be the "Team of the '60s.", USA."
1968–1980 AFL/AFC dominanceEdit
In Super Bowl III, behind the guarantee of quarterback Joe Namath and former Baltimore Colts coach Weeb Ewbank, the New York Jets defeated the eighteen-point favorite Baltimore Colts 16–7. The win demonstrated the AFL as a legitimate contender with the NFL. In Super Bowl IV the Kansas City Chiefs defeated the Minnesota Vikings 23–7. In time, the AFC dominated the 1970s, though five of those wins were by pre-merger NFL teams that had been moved to the AFC (Colts and Steelers). The Dallas Cowboys were the only NFC franchise to claim a Super Bowl during the 1970s decade, winning Super Bowl VI and Super Bowl XII.
Dominant franchises Edit
During the 1970s, the majority of the Super Bowls were won by just three teams, the Dallas Cowboys, the Miami Dolphins, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, winning a combined eight championships in the decade. Dallas won Super Bowls VI and XII. Miami won Super Bowls VII and VIII. The first of these Super Bowl wins capped the only undefeated and untied season in the history of the NFL at 17-0. The Minnesota Vikings played in four Super Bowls in the 1970s, but lost each of them.
The Steelers dominate late 1970s Edit
Pittsburgh won Super Bowls IX, X, XIII, and XIV between 1974 and 1979, behind the leadership of head coach Chuck Noll, and the play of offense stars Terry Bradshaw, Franco Harris, Lynn Swann, John Stallworth, and Mike Webster and their "Steel Curtain" dominant defense led by "Mean" Joe Greene, L.C. Greenwood, Ernie Holmes, Mel Blount, Jack Ham, and Jack Lambert. The coaches and administrators also were part of the dynasty's greatness as evidenced by the team's "final pieces" being part of the famous 1974 draft. The selections in that class have been considered the best by any pro franchise ever, as Pittsburgh selected four future Hall of Famers, the most for any team in any sport in a single draft. The Steelers were the first team to win three and then four Super Bowls and appeared in six AFC Championship Games during the decade, making the playoffs in eight straight seasons. Nine players and three coaches and administrators on the team have been inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Pittsburgh still remains the only team to win back-to-back Super Bowls twice and four Super Bowls in a six-year period. The late 1970s also featured the Dallas Cowboys advancing to three Super Bowls, losing two of them to the Steelers, and winning Super Bowl XII.
1981–1996: The NFC's winning streakEdit
NFC teams won fifteen of sixteen Super Bowls during this period, including a thirteen game-win streak from 1984 to 1996. All of the NFC winners during this period are considered apart of the NFL "royalty," older franchises with long rivalries and multiple championships in several decades.
The 49ers lead the NFC domination of the 1980s Edit
The most successful franchise of the 1980s was the San Francisco 49ers, who won four Super Bowls in the decade (XVI, XIX, XXIII, and XXIV). In addition to the Super Bowl championships, the 49ers made the playoffs nine seasons between 1981 and 1990, including eight division championships. They were best known for head coach Bill Walsh and his west coast offense. The offense was led by three-time Super Bowl MVP quarterback Joe Montana Super Bowl MVP wide receiver Jerry Rice and Tight End Dwight Clark. The 1980s also included the 1985 Chicago Bears led by quarterback Jim McMahon and legendary running back Walter Payton, who finished the season with an 18–1 record, winning Super Bowl XX. The Oakland Raiders were the only AFC franchise to win a Super Bowl in the 1980s, winning Super Bowls XV, and XVIII (as the Los Angeles Raiders). The Washington Redskins won Super Bowls XVII and XXII, while their NFC East rivals, the New York Giants, won Super Bowls XXI and XXV.
The Cowboys in the early 1990s Edit
The Dallas Cowboys became the dominant team in the NFL in the mid-1990s. After championships by division rivals New York and Washington to start the decade, the Cowboys won three of the next four Super Bowls. With Super Bowl XXIX, the 49ers became the first team to win five Super Bowls and also appeared in 5 NFC Championship games in the 90's. Including 4 of the first 5 of the decade and 1 versus the Packers following the 1997 season with Green Bay continuing on to the Super Bowl that year. The Cowboys also won their fifth title (Super Bowl XXX) in the decade and appeared in four NFC championship games as well, winning with both a balanced offense and dominant defense. The 49ers and the Cowboys faced each other in three consecutive NFC championships. As both teams began to lose their dominance late into the decade, another NFC powerhouse, the Green Bay Packers, led by three time MVP quarterback Brett Favre, emerged, winning Super Bowl XXXI following the 1996 season. The early 1990s also featured the Buffalo Bills, who became the only team to date to appear in four consecutive Super Bowls; however, they lost all four.
1997–2006: the AFC rises againEdit
In Super Bowl XXXII, John Elway led the Denver Broncos to an upset victory over the defending champion, the Green Bay Packers, snapping the NFC's thirteen-game winning streak, and beginning their own streak, in which AFC teams would win eight of the following ten Super Bowls. The Broncos would defeat the Atlanta Falcons the following season in Super Bowl XXXIII, which was John Elway's final game. After an NFC win by the St. Louis Rams in Super Bowl XXXIV, the AFC followed with wins by the Baltimore Ravens and New England Patriots.
The Patriots dominate the early 2000s Edit
The New England Patriots became the dominant team throughout the early 2000s, winning the championship in three out of four years early in the decade. In Super Bowl XXXVI, Super Bowl MVP quarterback Tom Brady led his team to a 20–17 upset victory over the Rams. The Patriots also won consecutive Super Bowls XXXVIII and XXXIX. In the 2007 season, the Patriots went 16-0 in the regular season and were strong favorites in Super Bowl XLII, however they lost that game to the New York Giants. The Patriots became the only team to finish the season 18–1 and not win the Super Bowl. That Super Bowl began a three-game playoff losing streak for the Patriots, even though they were heavy favorites in each game.
2007–present: Parity Edit
The second half of the 2000s featured parity among both conferences. The Pittsburgh Steelers and Indianapolis Colts continued the era of AFC dominance by winning Super Bowls XL and XLI respectively, with the Steelers winning an NFL record sixth Super Bowl championship in Super Bowl XLIII. With three NFC teams, the New York Giants, New Orleans Saints, and Green Bay Packers, logging Super Bowl victories in the next four seasons, the NFC has shown an increased parity when it comes to the League championship.
The Super Bowls of the late 2000s are marked by the performances by the winning quarterbacks. Peyton Manning, Eli Manning, Drew Brees, and Aaron Rodgers each had a memorable MVP performance as they added championships to their lists of individual accomplishments.
Television coverage and ratingsEdit
For many years, the Super Bowl has possessed a large US television viewership, and it is often the most watched television program of the year. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings, which is usually around a 40 rating and 60 share. This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment.
A frequently misquoted figure from NFL press releases has led to the common perception that the Super Bowl has an annual global audience of around one billion people. In reality, the NFL states one billion as the game's potential worldwide audience, or the number of people able to watch the game.
2011's Super Bowl XLV holds the record for total number of U.S. viewers, attracting an average audience of 111 million viewers, making the game the most viewed television broadcast of any kind in U.S. history.
The highest-rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982, which was watched in 49.1 percent of households (73 share), or 40,020,000 households at the time. Ratings for that game, a San Francisco victory over Cincinnati, may have been aided by a large blizzard that had affected much of the northeastern United States on game day, leaving residents to stay at home more than usual. Also, because network television was still the predominant means of viewership and pay television services (cable, and later satellite) were still relatively unavailable, there were not many choices of things to watch on television. Super Bowl XVI still ranks fourth on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and three other Super Bowls, XII, XVII, and XX, made the top ten.
Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept and expensive commercials. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Prices have increased every year, with advertisers paying as much as $3 million for a thirty-second spot during Super Bowl XLIII in 2009. A segment of the audience tunes in to the Super Bowl solely to view commercials. The Super Bowl halftime show has spawned another set of alternative entertainment such as the Lingerie Bowl, the Beer Bottle Bowl, and other facets of American culture.
While available to watch in many countries due to the prevalence of American channels on multichannel TV (cable, satellite, etc.) the Super Bowl is rarely[quantify] watched outside of the Americas. For example, the US viewing figure for 2011 is 111 million  - the worldwide[not in citation given] viewing figure for 2011 is also 111 million.
Super Bowl on TVEdit
|Network||Number broadcast||Years broadcast||Future scheduled telecasts|
|ABC*[›]||7||1985, 1988, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2006||*[›]|
|CBS||17||1967, 1968, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1992, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010||2013|
|Fox||6||1997, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011||2014|
|NBC||16||1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1989, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2009||2012|
^ *: Not currently broadcasting NFL.
The first Super Bowl was simultaneously broadcast by CBS and NBC, with each network using the same video feed, but providing its own commentary. Super Bowls I–VI were blacked out in the television markets of the host cities, due to league restrictions then in place.
The network that airs the Super Bowl typically takes advantage of the large audience to air an episode of a hit series, or to premiere the pilot of a promising new series in the lead-out slot, which immediately follows the Super Bowl and post-game coverage.
|“||Initially, it was sort of a novelty and so it didn't quite feel right. But it was just like, this is the year. ... Bands of our generation, you can sort of be seen on a stage like this or, like, not seen. There's not a lot of middle places. It is a tremendous venue.||”|
Early Super Bowls featured a halftime show consisting of marching bands from local colleges or high schools; but as the popularity of the game increased, a trend where popular singers and musicians performed during its pre-game ceremonies and the halftime show, or simply sang the national anthem of the United States, emerged. Unlike regular season or playoff games, thirty minutes are allocated for the Super Bowl halftime.
The first halftime show to have featured only one star performer was Michael Jackson during Super Bowl XXVII in 1993. The NFL specifically went after him to increase viewership and to continue expanding the Super Bowl's reputation. Another notable performance came during Super Bowl XXXVI in 2002, when U2 performed; during their second song, "Where the Streets Have No Name", the band played under a large projection screen which scrolled through names of the victims of the September 11 attacks.
The halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII in 2004 generated controversy when Justin Timberlake removed a piece of Janet Jackson's top, exposing her right breast with a star-shaped ring around the nipple. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was accidental, calling it a "wardrobe malfunction". The game was airing live on CBS, and MTV had produced the halftime show. Immediately after the moment, the footage jump-cut to a wide-angle shot and went to a commercial break; however, video captures of the moment in detail circulated quickly on the internet. The NFL, embarrassed by the incident, permanently banned MTV from conducting future halftime shows. This also led to the FCC tightening controls on indecency and fining CBS and CBS-owned stations a total of $550,000 for the incident. The fine was later reversed in July 2008. For six years following the incident, all of the performers in Super Bowl halftime shows were artists associated with the classic rock genre of the 1970s and 1980s, with only one act playing the entire halftime show. The halftime show returned to a modern act in 2011 with The Black Eyed Peas.
Excluding Super Bowl XXXIX, the famous "I'm going to Disney World!" advertising campaign took place at every Super Bowl since Super Bowl XXI, when quarterback Phil Simms from the New York Giants became the first player to say the tagline. The Walt Disney Company ran the ad several times during the game
- REDIRECT Template:Which, showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase.
Twenty-six of forty-four Super Bowls have been played in New Orleans (nine times), the Greater Miami area (ten times), or the Greater Los Angeles area (seven times). Stadiums that do not host an NFL franchise are not, by rule, prohibited from hosting the Super Bowl, and non-NFL stadiums have hosted the game seven times, with the Rose Bowl accounting for five of these. To date, however, no market or region without an NFL franchise has ever hosted a Super Bowl; all five Rose Bowl Super Bowls were hosted before the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Raiders left for St. Louis and Oakland respectively in 1995.
No team has ever played the Super Bowl in their home stadium. The closest have been the San Francisco 49ers who played Super Bowl XIX in Stanford Stadium, rather than Candlestick Park, and the Los Angeles Rams who played Super Bowl XIV in the Rose Bowl, rather than the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. Besides those two, the only other Super Bowl venue that was not the home stadium to an NFL team at the time was Rice Stadium in Houston: the Houston Oilers had played there previously, but moved to the Astrodome several years prior to Super Bowl VIII. The Orange Bowl was the only AFL stadium to host a Super Bowl and the only stadium to host consecutive Super Bowls, hosting Super Bowls II and III.
Traditionally, the NFL does not award Super Bowls to stadiums that are located in climates less than 50°F (10°C) unless the field is completely covered by a fixed or retractable roof. Only three Super Bowls have been played in northern cities: two in the Detroit area—Super Bowl XVI at Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac, Michigan and Super Bowl XL at Ford Field in Detroit—, and one in Minneapolis—Super Bowl XXVI. Super Bowl XLVI will also be played in a northern city, Indianapolis.
On March 5, 2006, Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City, Missouri, a "cold weather" city, was awarded the rights to host Super Bowl XLIX in 2015; however, the game was contingent on the successful passage of two sales taxes in Jackson County, Missouri on April 4, 2006. The first tax would have funded improvements to Arrowhead, home of the Chiefs, and neighboring Kauffman Stadium, home of the Kansas City Royals Major League Baseball team. The second tax would have allowed the construction of a "rolling roof" between the two stadiums. The second tax failed to pass. With increased opposition by local business leaders and politicians, Kansas City eventually withdrew its request to host the game on May 25, 2006. Before that, Super Bowl XLIV, slated for February 7, 2010, was withdrawn from New York City's proposed West Side Stadium, also to have been a retractable roof facility, because the city, state, and proposed tenants New York Jets could not agree on funding. The game was then awarded to Sun Life Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. Despite not having a retractable roof, New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey was chosen for Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014, in an apparent waiver of the warm-climate rule.
The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually three to five years before the game. Cities place bids to host a Super Bowl and are evaluated in terms of stadium renovation and their ability to host. The NFL owners then meet to make a selection on the site. On October 16, 2007, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell suggested that a Super Bowl might be played in London, probably at Wembley Stadium. The game has never been played in a region that lacks an NFL franchise; seven Super Bowls have been played in Los Angeles, but none since the Los Angeles Raiders and Los Angeles Rams relocated to Oakland and St. Louis respectively in 1995.
Home team designationEdit
The designated "home team" alternates between the AFC team in even-numbered games and the NFC team in odd-numbered games. This alternation was initiated with the first Super Bowl, when the Green Bay Packers of the NFL were the designated home team. Since Super Bowl XIII in January 1979, the home team is given the choice of wearing their colored or white jerseys. Formerly, the designated home team was specified to wear their colored jerseys, which resulted in Dallas donning their less familiar dark blue jerseys for Super Bowl V. Regardless of being the home or away team of record, each team has their team wordmark painted in one of the end zones along with their conference designation.
While most of the home teams in the Super Bowl have chosen to wear their colored jerseys, there have been four exceptions; the Cowboys during Super Bowl XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins during Super Bowl XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers during Super Bowl XL. The Cowboys, since 1965, and Redskins, since the arrival of coach Joe Gibbs in 1981, have traditionally worn white jerseys at home. Meanwhile, the Steelers, who have always worn their black jerseys at home since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970, opted for the white jerseys after winning three consecutive playoff games on the road, wearing white. The Steelers' decision was compared with the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX; the Patriots had worn white jerseys at home during the 1985 season, but after winning road playoff games against the New York Jets and Miami Dolphins wearing red jerseys, New England opted to switch to red for the Super Bowl as the designated home team.
Stadiums that have hosted or are scheduled to host the Super BowlEdit
italics indicate a stadium that is now demolished.
* references a future Super Bowl site
Future Super Bowl host stadiums
- 2012 – Lucas Oil Stadium, Indianapolis, Indiana (1) (The current Labor dispute could affect when or even if Super Bowl XLVI will happen)
- 2013 – Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana (10)
- 2014 – New Meadowlands Stadium, East Rutherford, New Jersey (1)
The game has never been played in a region that lacked an NFL franchise, though cities without NFL teams are not categorically ineligible to host the event. London, England has occasionally been mentioned as a host city for a Super Bowl in the near future. The most likely venue would be Wembley Stadium, which has hosted several NFL games in the past. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell has openly discussed the possibility on different occasions.
Super Bowl 50
Even though the Los Angeles area currently lacks an NFL franchise, the league is considering holding Super Bowl 50 there to mark the fiftieth Super Bowl and to commemorate Super Bowl I, which was held at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. If Los Angeles were to host the game, it could be held at the Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, a new venue of a proposed Los Angeles Stadium in City of Industry, California or another new venue such as the proposed Farmers Field in Downtown Los Angeles (L.A. Live). The NFL has not had a franchise in the city since the 1994 season and has not played a Super Bowl in the metropolitan area since 1993. Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas is apparently also interested in hosting Super Bowl 50.
Cities and regions that have hosted the Super BowlEdit
|Name||# hosted||Years hosted|
|Miami Area||10||1968, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1979, 1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, 2010|
|New Orleans||9||1970, 1972, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, 2002|
|Greater Los Angeles Area||7||1967, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1993|
|Tampa||4||1984, 1991, 2001, 2009|
|San Diego||3||1988, 1998, 2003|
|Detroit Area||2||1982, 2006|
|Phoenix Area||2||1996, 2008|
|San Francisco Bay Area||1||1985|
|Dallas-Fort Worth Area||1||2011|
Super Bowl trademarkEdit
The NFL is vigilant on stopping what it says is unauthorized commercial use of its trademarked terms "NFL," "Super Bowl," and "Super Sunday." As a result, many events and promotions tied to the game, but not sanctioned by the NFL, are forced to refer to it with colloquialisms such as "The Big Game," or other generic descriptions. (A radio spot for Planters nuts parodied this, by saying "it would be super...to have a bowl...of Planters nuts while watching the big game!") The NFL claims that the use of the phrase "Super Bowl" implies an NFL affiliation, and on this basis the league asserts broad rights to restrict how the game may be shown publicly; for example, the league says Super Bowl showings are prohibited in churches or at other events that "promote a message," while venues that do not regularly show sporting events cannot show the Super Bowl on any television screen larger than 55 inches. Some critics say the NFL is exaggerating its ownership rights by stating that "any use is prohibited," as this contradicts the broad doctrine of fair use in the United States.
In 2006, the NFL made an attempt to trademark "The Big Game" as well; however, it withdrew the application in 2007 due to growing commercial opposition to the move, mostly from Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley and their fans, as the Stanford Cardinal football and California Golden Bears football teams compete in Big Game, which has been played since 1892 (28 years before the formation of the NFL and 75 years before Super Bowl I). Legislation was proposed by Utah Senator Orrin Hatch in 2008 "to provide an exemption from exclusive rights in copyright for certain nonprofit organizations to display live football games," and "for other purposes."
- List of Super Bowl champions
- Super Bowl MVP Award
- List of Super Bowl records
- History of National Football League Championship (1920–present)
- List of NFL champions (1920–1969)
- List of Super Bowl head coaches
- List of Super Bowl officials
- List of Super Bowl broadcasters
- Super Bowl advertising
- List of Super Bowl lead-out programs
- List of Super Bowl halftime shows
- Super Bowl counterprogramming
- List of national anthem performers at the Super Bowl
- Super Bowl ring
- National Football League lore
- List of NFL franchise post-season droughts
- Grey Cup, the equivalent event for the Canadian Football League
- AFC Championship Game
- NFC Championship Game
- Super Bowl curse
- ↑ http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/45
- ↑ "Super Bowl underscores cultural divide". http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2004/01/29/super_bowl_underscores_cultural_divide.
- ↑ "Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the American Football League". http://www.nfl.com/news/story?id=09000d5d810f2987&template=without-video-with-comments&confirm=true.
- ↑ "Let's make Super Bowl an official holiday". http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/16865062.
- ↑ "USDA Offers Food Safety Advice for Your Super Bowl Party". U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/News_&_Events/NR_012706_01/index.asp. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- ↑ "Super Bowl dethrones 'M*A*S*H,' sets all-time record". The Live Feed. February 8, 2010. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/blogs/live-feed/super-bowl-dethrones-mash-sets-53083.
- ↑ "Elite clubs on Uefa gravy train as Super Bowl knocked off perch". http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/european/elite-clubs-on-uefa-gravy-train-as-super-bowl-knocked-off-perch-1884429.html.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Commercials as big as game, Florida Today
- ↑ MacCambridge, Michael. America's Game. New York: Random House, 2004, p. 237.
- ↑ Will, Tracy (1997). Wisconsin. Oakland, California: Compass American Guides. pp. 83. ISBN 1878867490.
- ↑ "There is no other TitleTown USA". http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/titletown/news/story?id=3336558.
- ↑ Rushin, Steve (2006-02-06). "A Billion People Can Be Wrong". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2006/writers/steve_rushin/02/03/rushin0206/. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- ↑ Super Bowl XL to Attract Close to 1 Billion Viewers Worldwide, Voice of America, February 3, 2006
- ↑ Super Bowl XLI broadcast in 232 countries, NFL press release, February 3, 2007.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 "Super Bowl XLV Most Viewed Telecast in Broadcast History". http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/media_entertainment/super-bowl-xlv-most-viewed-telecast-in-broadcast-history.
- ↑ "Television's Top-Rated Programs". Nielsen Media Research. 2000-04-30. http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/tv-toprated.html. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- ↑ "Super Bowl ad rates fall, but event still pricey". http://www.cbssports.com/nfl/superbowl/story/12776664/super-bowl-ad-rates-fall-but-event-still-pricey.
- ↑ "Most watched program in history". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1354784/The-watched-programme-history-Super-Bowl-viewing-figures-hit-111m.html?ITO=1490.
- ↑ 
- ↑ "'Wipeout' special set for Super Sunday". http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/television/news/e3iea59cb79796a9dff7024386d316b0583.
- ↑ Fryer, Jenna (2009-01-30). "Bruce Springsteen's Super Bowl Promise: "12-Minute Party" At Halftime". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/01/29/bruce-springsteens-super_n_162385.html. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ Super Bowl – Entertainment
- ↑ Sandomir, Richard (2009-06-29). "How Jackson Redefined the Super Bowl". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/30/sports/football/30sandomir.html. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- ↑ "Chiefs sign new lease with Jackson County, team awaits April vote". Kansas City Chiefs. 2006-01-24. Archived from the original on May 5, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070505023551/http://www.kcchiefs.com/news/2006/01/24/chiefs_sign_new_lease_with_jackson_county_team_awaits_april_vote/. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- ↑ Associated Press (2006-05-25). "No rolling roof, no Super Bowl at Arrowhead". ESPN.com. http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/news/story?id=2458407. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- ↑ Pedulla, Tom (2003-09-23). "N.Y./N.J. Super Bowl in 2008 may not come to pass". USAToday. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2003-09-22-ny-nj-superbowl_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
- ↑ ESPN – Goodell says NFL to look into playing Super Bowl in London – NFL, Associated Press, ESPN, 2007-10-15, accessed 2009-01-26
- ↑ "Which jerseys will Bears wear in Super Bowl?". 2007-01-22. http://www.chicagobears.com/news/ChalkTalkStory.asp?story_id=2961. Retrieved 2008-04-12. "The Bears will be designated as the home team ... in Super Bowl XLI in Miami. The home team alternates every Super Bowl with the NFC representative serving as the home team in odd-numbered years and the away team in even-numbered years."
- ↑ "XLII facts about Super Bowl XLII". 2008-01-22. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/story?id=09000d5d8062bc41&template=with-video&confirm=true. Retrieved 2008-04-12. "The AFC is the home team in this year's Super Bowl [Super Bowl XLII]."
- ↑ Associated Press (2009-05-19). "New Orleans to host 10th Super Bowl in 2013". ESPN.com. http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/news/story?id=4180382. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- ↑ "NFL in talks on London Super Bowl". BBC Sports. 2009-04-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/american_football/8016358.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
- ↑ ESPN News (2009-05-03). "Report: London eyes Super Bowl". ESPN.com. http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/news/story?id=4130864. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 Marvez, Alex (2009-05-04). "All signs point to Favre returning". Fox Sports. http://msn.foxsports.com/nfl/story/9535000/All-signs-point-to-Favre-returning. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- ↑ "L.A. could host Super Bowl in 2016; Tampa in 2014?". NFL.com. 2009-02-03. http://blogs.nfl.com/2009/02/02/la-could-host-super-bowl-in-16-tampa-in-14/. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- ↑ Farmer, Sam (2008-11-09). "Team or no team, Los Angeles has a shot at 2016 Super Bowl". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/nov/09/sports/sp-nfllines9. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- ↑ Gardner, Eriq (2007-01-29). "Super Bowl, Super Trademarks: Protecting the NFL's IP". The Hollywood Reporter, Esq.. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070701050745/http://www.hollywoodreporteresq.com/thresq/ip/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003538980. Retrieved 2007-02-04.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Alter, Alexandra (2008-02-02). "God vs. Gridiron". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120190701069036633.html?mod=home_we_banner_left. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- ↑ FitzGerald, Tom (May 23, 2007). "NFL sidelines its pursuit of Big Game trademark". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/05/23/SPGUAQ07LN6.DTL.
- ↑ "Church Super Bowl Victory: Senators Hatch & Specter Score Touchdown with NFL Policy". Copyright Queen Blog. 2008-02-22. http://www.copyrightsolver.com/dn2/pt/blog/default.aspx?id=10&t=Church-Super-Bowl-Victory-Senators-Hatc. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
Further reading Edit
- 2006 NFL Record and Fact Book. Time Inc. Home Entertainment. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- Total Football II: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- The Sporting News Complete Super Bowl Book 1995. ISBN 0-89204-523-X.
- The Super Bowl: An Official Retrospective with DVD. Ballantine Books. 2005. ISBN 0-345-48719-2.
- MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game. Random House. ISBN 0-375-50454-0.
- Chris Jones (February 2, 2005). "NFL tightens restrictions on Super Bowl advertisements". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
- John Branch (February 4, 2006). "Build It and They Will Come". The New York Times.
- Super Bowl play-by-plays from USA Today. Last accessed September 28, 2005.
- All-Time Super Bowl Odds from The Sports Network. Last accessed October 16, 2005.
- 100 Greatest Super Bowl Moments by Kevin Jackson, Jeff Merron, and David Schoenfield; espn.com. Last accessed October 31, 2005.
- Various Authors – "SI's 25 Lost Treasures" – Sports Illustrated, July 11, 2005 p. 114.
- "The Super Bowl I-VII." Lost Treasures of NFL Films. ESPN2. January 26, 2001.
- "MTV's Super Bowl Uncensored". MTV. January 27, 2001.
- "Talk Shows." CBS: 50 Years from Television City. CBS. April 27, 2002.
- Dee, Tommy (January 2007). "Super Bowl Halftime Jinx". Maxim Magazine Online. http://www.maximonline.com/articles/index.aspx?a_id=7435&src=cl9. Retrieved 2007-01-25.